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Tuesday, July 21, 2015

Guerrilla warfare, effectively defeated the US in Vietnam and the Soviet Union in Afghanistan

The ride was not finished (174)

(Part one hundred and seventy-four, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, January 2, 2015, 19:17 pm)

Abdul Haris Nasution
Guerrilla warfare, effectively defeated the US in Vietnam and the Soviet Union in Afghanistan

1945-1950 year group called Darul Islam (DI) in various regions in Indonesia a rebellion against the Indonesian Armed Forces (TNI).
In South Kalimantan to East Kalimantan border entry operations Darul Islam group led by Ibn Hajar. The group is one group that is hard to beat, considering they use guerrilla warfare tactics, tactics of attack and run, attacked the village or villages that existed then run forestry company when it comes se military forces.
Agusno corporal, who joined the company, also includes among other corporal and corporal Usman Rochadi taken from the unity of Supplies and Transport Command (Bekumdam) Balikpapan, sent to the border forests in East Kalimantan and South Kalimantan around the border of the city of Aberdeen and Land Grogot recalled:
'' Once we were one group suddenly attacked by the troops of Ibn Hajar, most of our members were killed, I survived because hidden in the bush '',
'' It appears Ibn Hajar forces around on my body, but they did not see me, '' did before the war my grandfather equipped with salman Antong sort pandan leaves and water in the flush to the body, with spells dato read something, he says so the enemy can not see us if we hide ''.
In addition to Ibn Hajar group of TNI soldiers also using guerrilla tactics, which are very powerful when used in the jungle like in Borneo.
Guerrilla warfare has proved effective when the fighters along with the military against the Dutch colonialists, Japanese, and English in Indonesia.
This tactic is also very potent in the Vietnam war, when the Vietcong with a simple military equipment the US military against more sophisticated.
Also effective when the Afghan Mujahideen against Soviet troops in Afghanistan from 1980 to 1988.

5 Expert Guerilla Tactics The acclaimed World War
Vietnam has just lost one war hero, General Vo Nguyen Giap. Hundreds of thousands of people drove departure Vo Nguyen Giap, the figure of the fight against French colonization and also attack the United States to Vietnam.

5 Expert Guerilla Tactics The acclaimed World War

Vo Nguyen Giap

Vo Nguyen Giap is also known as one of the masters of guerrilla warfare strategy. He's led troops in Vietnam Dien Bien Phu attack with guerrilla strategy.

Besides Vo Nguyen Giap, the world knows a lot of masters of guerrilla warfare. One is the general pride of Indonesia, General AH Nasution. Here's his review.

1. General AH Nasution

General Nasution known as an expert in guerrilla warfare. His experience as a guerrilla warfare expert comes after approval Renville January 17, 1948. At that time Siliwangi troops moved to Central Java. Nasution then as Deputy Commander of the Armed Forces. Indonesian soldiers when it expects the Netherlands will repeat the military aggression I. Nasution was draft resistance of the people of the universe with the core of the guerrilla war.

General AH Nasution
General AH Nasution
In the military aggression II, Nasution was appointed as Commander of the Army in Java. Headquartered in a village in Prambanan and Kulonprogro, Nasution issued various instructions implementation of guerrilla warfare. After becoming Chief of Staff, Nasution was disabled due to the events of October 17, 1952. Nasution was reactivated in 1955 and battling various rebellions.

General Nasution is known as a prolific author. He wrote many books among which 11 volumes Around Indonesian War of Independence. His book Principles of Guerrilla translated into various foreign languages. That said, learn from the book Nasution Vietcong during the war against the United States in Vietnam.

Nasution also wrote a memoir entitled Fulfilling Duty calls as much as 8 vols. Nasution died on September 5, 2000. His body was buried in the TMP Kalibata.

2. Vo Nguyen Giap

Vietnam's leading military leader, Gen. Vo Nguyen Giap who can subdue French troops in Dien Bien Phu, revealed a number of secrets troop strength.

In late April 1975, North Vietnamese forces managed to make US forces and South Vietnamese troops to its knees. This event was marked by a sad symbol for America when the US ambassador to South Vietnam to fly by helicopter from the roof of the embassy building.

Vo Nguyen Giap
Vo Nguyen Giap
"We are forced to confront the most powerful imperialist aggressive and ruthless. The war lasted for five administration of five presidents and confront us with unequal force," said Vo.

"Without holding a gun, Vietnam could stand up and destroy the slavery seacoast and then beat two big imperialists to liberate the nation and the people. Let us look back into the history of thousands of years, studying the national culture and traditions and military heritage of the Vietnamese people, as well as the revolutionary tendency Vietnam. "

According to the Vietnamese people strength lies in the development philosophy of life and culture with patriotism at its core, (producing) did not give up the desire to fight. This power has been used to overcome the natural hardness and foreign aggression.

General Vo registered himself in the military history of Vietnam as military strategies are very brilliant, such as the besiegers French troops at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 and the Tet Offensive (Tet Offensive) of the US in South Vietnam in 1968. The flagship strategy is guerrilla warfare.

Che Guevara

3. Che Guevara

Ernesto Che Guevara was born on June 14, 1928. He was better known as El Che or Che. He was a revolutionary, physician, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat, military expert at the same time. He liked and hated by many people.

Che Guevara
Che Guevara

Che Guevara can mean love or hate. For some people, the name is the same as the struggle for freedom, but for others means murder. The original name was Ernesto Che Lynch. When young Che nicknamed 'Chanco' (swine) because rarely bath, so that his body odor. He changed T-shirts once every week.

Che wrote the book Guerilla Warfare after the Cuban revolution. The book was published in 1961. Che's book serves as a guide for militants around the world. Many cite the principles of guerrilla Che almost like the contents of the book Mao. But Che claimed to have never read a book of Mao.

Mao Zedong

4. Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong was the leader of the Chinese Communist Party. He became President of the People's Republic of China in 1949. At the time he was in power, Chinese people living under the iron hand.

Mao Zedong
Mao Zedong
In the civil war in China against the nationalist camp, Mao led strategies often adopted by many as a guerrilla warfare strategy. Mao is a principle of war strategy, as opposed to advanced, we retreated. When the enemy is gathering, we harass. When the enemy is tired, we attack. When the enemy retreated, our pursuit. One slogan which rapidly adopted as the symbol of Mao's strategy is pull your arm before hitting. In this way blow out will be more powerful.

5. Lawrence of Arabia

TE Lawrence or Lawrence of Arabia was an adventurer of the British military strategist. He also wrote the masterpiece "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom" (1927). He mobilize the Arab revolutions and start the fight against Turkey.

TE Lawrence
TE Lawrence

He was instrumental in helping Emirates when dealing with Turkey during World War I.

He introduced the theory of guerrilla tactics in an article he wrote in 1938. In his article he compared the guerrilla fighter with gas. Insurgents fought in the operation area at random. They or the cell nucleus occupy a very small place while gas molecules occupy a place in the smallest core container.

Insurgents can rely with the group for tactical purposes but scattered leadership position. Fighters like that is very hard to beat.

Lawrence struggle filmed in "Lawrence of Arabia" was first released in 1962 with actor Peter O''Toole as a character actor's history. The film managed to get seven Oscars including best film and best director for David Lean.

guerrilla war
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
"Guerrilla" and "Guerrilla War" redirect here. For the video game, see the Guerrilla War (video game). For other uses, see Guerrilla (disambiguation).
Not to be confused with the Gorilla.

Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of fighters as civilians or armed irregulars using military tactics, including ambushes, sabotage, assault, war, press-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight larger and less-traditional military phone ,

Spanish guerrilla resistance invasion of France in 1808
The term, small form of "war" in Spanish, is usually translated as "small wars", and said, guerrilla (Spanish pronunciation: [ɡeriʎa]), has been used to describe the concept since the 18th century, and perhaps earlier. In Spain the use of true, people who are members of the guerrilla is guerrillero ([ɡeriʎeɾo]) if male, or guerrillera if female. This term became popular during the Peninsular War, when Spaniards rose against Napoleon's forces and fight against a very superior army using guerilla strategy.


The term "guerrilla" is used in English at the beginning of 1809, to describe the fighters (eg, "The city was taken by the rebels"), and also (as in Spain) to indicate the fighter group or band. However, in most languages ​​still show a certain style guerrilla war. The use of small evoke differences in the number, scale, and scope between the guerrilla army and the formal, professional soldiers countries.

Strategies, tactics and organization [edit]

Boer guerrillas during the Second Boer War in South Africa

A Kurdish guerrilla PKK in Iraqi Kurdistan as part of the Kurdish-Turkish conflict, 2008
Strategy and tactics of guerrilla war tend to focus around the use, a small mobile force to compete bigger, heavier one. [1] guerrilla focuses on organizing in small units, depending on the support of the local population, as well as taking advantage of the terrain is more accommodating of small units.

Tactically, the guerrilla army would avoid confrontation with enemy forces large units, but finding and eliminating small groups of soldiers to minimize losses and drain the strength of the opponent. Not limit their targets to personnel, resource enemy targets also preferred. All of it is to weaken the power of the enemy, causing the enemy finally not able to prosecute the war again, and forcing the enemy to withdraw.

It is often misunderstood that guerrilla warfare should involve posing as civilians causing enemy forces fail to tell friend from foe. However, this is not the main feature of guerrilla warfare. The kind of war can be practiced anywhere there is a place for fighters to cover themselves and where profits can not be exploited by forces larger and more conventional.

Communist leaders such as Mao Zedong and Ho Chi Minh North Vietnam either guerrilla war carried provides a theoretical framework that serves as a model for similar strategies in other places, like Cuba "Foco" theory and the anti-Soviet mujahideen in Afghanistan. [2]

Mao Zedong summarized the basic guerrilla tactics at the start of China's "Second Civil Revolutionary War" as: ". The progress of the enemy, we retreat, the enemy camps, we harass the enemy tires, we attack, the enemy retreats, we pursue" [3]: p , 124 At least one author credits the ancient Chinese works of The Art of War (derived from at least 200 BC) by providing instruction in tactics such as Mao [2] :. Pp. 6-7

Women Soviet partisans operating under Sydir Kovpak in German-occupied Ukraine
While the tactics of modern guerrilla warfare comes from the 20th century, irregular warfare, using the elements then the characteristics of modern guerrilla warfare, there have been many battles along the ancient civilizations but in a smaller scale. Growth has recently inspired in part by theoretical works guerrilla war, starting with the manual de Guerra de Guerrillas by Ramón Matías Mella written in the 19th century and, recently, Mao Zedong On Guerrilla Warfare, Che Guevara's Guerrilla Warfare and Lenin's text of the same name, all written after the revolution successfully performed by them in China, Cuba and Russia respectively. The note is marked by guerrilla warfare tactics as, according to the text of Che Guevara, who "used by the parties supported by the majority but which has a much smaller number of weapons to be used in defense against oppression". [4]

History [edit]
Main article: History of guerrilla war
Guerrilla tactics that may be used by prehistoric tribes soldiers against enemy tribes. Evidence of conventional warfare, on the other hand, did not appear until 3100 BC in Egypt and Mesopotamia. Since the Enlightenment, ideologies such as nationalism, liberalism, socialism, and religious fundamentalism has played an important role in shaping the insurgency and guerrilla warfare. [5]

An important example of guerrilla warfare during the 17th century in India when Maratha under the leadership of Chhatrapati Shivaji Raje Bhonsle (founder of the Maratha Empire) attacked the Muslim kingdom around Bijapur Sultanate and Qutub Shahi Empire, which has a direct numerical advantage and a large army, but a little knowledge about the geographical layout of the Western Ghats and Deccan Plateau. He gathered a small army and constantly attacked military camps and won many battles even with the significant figures. Then, the same principles used in the overthrow tiranic Mughal Empire. [6]

Similarly, the 17th century in India Jat soldiers, as Gokula Raja Ram Jat, also used Dhar (guerrilla) against the Mughals. The number of regular soldiers were not great but the efficacy of their Dhar (guerrilla) tactics and clear in their dashing attacks against troops of the great Mughal Aurangzeb, who not only restore the spirit of the Jat shaken but also instilled in them the power of the [7] enabled to withstand reverse while later ,

Counter-guerrilla warfare [edit]
Main article: Counter-insurgency

Vendée mass shooting royalist rebels in the west of France, 1793

The Third May 1808 by Francisco Goya, show opponents of the Spanish executed by Napoleon's troops during the Peninsular War.

Polish guerrillas Battalion Zośka stolen German uniforms and armed with stolen weapons, fighting in the Warsaw Uprising, the largest anti-Nazi guerrilla war in Europe.

A Viet Cong base camp being burned, My Tho, South Vietnam, 1968
A counter-insurgency or counter [8] (COIN) operations involve actions taken by the government recognized the nation to contain or extinguish the rebellion is taken against it. [9] In the main, the rebels are trying to destroy or remove the political authority of the government to defend the population they seek to control, and anti-rebel forces trying to protect the authority and reduce or eliminate the authority replaces the rebels. Counter-insurgency operations are common during the war, occupation and armed uprising. Counter-insurgency may be armed suppression of the uprising, coupled with tactics such as divide and rule designed to break the link between the insurgency and the population in which the rebels move. Because it may be difficult or impossible to distinguish between a rebel, a supporter of the rebellion who are members of non-combatants, and not at all involved in population, counterinsurgency operations are often rested on the difference confused, relativistic, or situational between combatants and non-combatants.

Principle [edit]
Guerrilla can be difficult to beat, but certain principles of counter-insurgency warfare, known since the 1950s and 1960s and has been successfully applied.

Classical guidelines [edit]
Work widely distributed and influential of Sir Robert Thompson, an expert counter-insurgency of the Malayan Emergency, offers some guidelines. Thompson is the underlying assumption that a minimal state committed to the rule of law and better governance. [10]

Some governments, however, give little attention to these considerations, and their counter-insurgency operations have involved mass murder, genocide, terror, torture and execution.

Historian Timothy Snyder has written, "In the guise of anti-partisan actions, Germany killed perhaps three quarters of a million people, about 350,000 in Belarus alone, and lower numbers but compared in Poland and Yugoslavia. Germany killed more than one hundred thousand Polish while pressing Rebellion Warsaw 1944. "[11]

During the Vietnam War, America "defoliated thousands of trees in areas where the communist North Vietnamese troops hid supply lines and conduct guerrilla warfare", [12] (see Operation Ranch Hand). In the Soviet war in Afghanistan, the US-backed Soviet Mujahideen countered with a 'scorched earth' policy, driving more than a third of the population of Afghanistan into exile (over 5 million people), and carrying out extensive damage to villages, granaries, crops, livestock, and systems irrigation, including deadly mining and extensive fields and pastures. [13] [14]

Many modern countries use doctrine manhunting to look for and eliminate the individual insurgents. [Reference?]

Variants [edit]
Some writers on counter-insurgency warfare emphasize more turbulent nature of guerrilla warfare environment today, where a clear political purpose, and structure of the party places such as Vietnam, Malaysia, and El Salvador are not uncommon. These authors showed various guerrilla conflict centered religion, ethnicity or even criminal enterprise theme, and which does not lend itself to the classic "national liberation" template.

The wide availability of the Internet has also led to changes in tempo and mode of guerrilla operations in areas such as coordination of strikes, utilizing financing, recruitment, and media manipulation. While the classical guidelines still apply, anti-guerrilla forces today have to accept more intrusive fashion, orderly and unambiguous operation. According to David Kilcullen:

"The rebels may not be trying to overthrow the state, may not have a coherent strategy or may pursue a faith-based approach difficult to fight with traditional methods. Perhaps there are many competing uprising in the theater, which means that the counterinsurgent must control the environment as a whole rather than defeating a particular enemy. individual action and the subjective effects of propaganda "single narrative" may be much larger than practical progress, rendering cons even more non-linear and unpredictable than ever before. The counterinsurgent, not the rebels, may start a conflict and representing the strength of revolutionary change, the economic relationship between the rebels and residents can be contrary to the classical theory, and tactics of rebels, by exploiting the propaganda effect of urban bombings, could undo some of the classic tactics and make others, such as patrol, counterproductive in certain circumstances, therefore, the evidence indicates the field, the classical theory required but not enough to succeed against the insurgency contemporary. "[15]

Foco theory [edit]
Main article: Foco

Tuareg rebels in northern Niger combat 2008
Why fight a guerrilla fighter? We must come to the inevitable conclusion that the guerrilla fighter was a social reformer, that he took the weapon respond to angry protests of the people against their oppressors, and that he fought to change the social system that makes all its armed brothers in disgrace and misery.

- Che Guevara [16]
In 1960, the Marxist revolutionary Che Guevara develop Foco (Spanish: foquismo) theory of revolution in his book Guerrilla Warfare, based on his experience during the 1959 Cuban Revolution. This was later formalized as "focalism" by Régis Debray. The main principle is that vanguardism by a cadre of small, fast-moving paramilitary groups can provide a focus for the discontent of the people against the sitting regime, and thus lead the general uprising. Although the initial approach is to mobilize and launch an attack from rural areas, many ideas Foco adapted into urban guerrilla warfare movement.

The Power Of Indonesia
Strategy Guerrilla Warfare by Nasution

As the people of Indonesia, you should be familiar with a general named Abdul Haris Nasution, the general who led the division Siliwangi. He is one of the best generals Indonesia. He is a powerful figure, strong, full of the spirit of nationalism, and has a brilliant brain. He is the author of the military's phenomenal, "Guerilla Warfare Strategy"

In the first Independence Revolution (1946-1948), when he led the Division Siliwangi, Nasution took the second lesson. People need to support the military. From this reason, was born the idea of ​​guerrilla warfare as a form of people's war. This method is more mature after Nasution became commander of the military division Java Independence Revolution II (1948-1949).

Therefore, he is known as the pioneer of the basic guerrilla war against Dutch colonialism. The style of this war and later popularized by General Sudirman. The concept of guerrilla warfare was later published in a book that is phenomenal at that time, Strategy Guerrilla Warfare.

now, Strategy book Guerrilla Warfare, has been translated into many languages, even books compulsory military academies in several countries, including the world's elite military school, West Point, United States (US).

and you know, one of the secrets of victory against the Americans since Vietnam when the Vietnamese army book.Now studied, this book became the reference book of military schools around the world.

guerrilla tactics
The Vietnamese Communists, or Vietcong, is the military branch of the National Liberation Front (NLF), and was ordered by the Central Office for South Vietnam, which is located near the border of Cambodia. For weapons, ammunition and special equipment, Vietcong depend on the Ho Chi Minh trail. Another requirement met in South Vietnam.

  The main force unit Vietcong Vietcong were uniformed, full-time soldiers, and used to launch large-scale attacks over a wide area. Regional forces are also full-time, but operated only within their own districts. If necessary, a small regional units will come together for a large-scale attack. If the pressure becomes too great enemy, they will break down into smaller units and spread.
Unlike the main forces, who see themselves as professional soldiers, local Vietcong groups tend to be much more confident. For the most part, recruiting young teenagers, and while many are motivated by idealism, others have pressured or embarrassed to join. They also harbored real doubts about their ability to fight American soldiers armed and trained.

Initially, the local guerrillas were given only minimal basic infantry training, but if they were recruited for the main force units, they can receive up to a month follow-up instructions. In addition, there are dozens of hidden centers throughout South Vietnam to the squad and platoon leaders, weapons and radio training. To ensure that the guerrillas understand why they are fighting, all training programs, including political instruction.

In the mid-1960s, most of the major powers Vietcong forces armed with the Chinese version of the AK-47 machine guns Russia. They also use a variety of effective Soviet and Chinese light and medium machine guns and machine guns rarely, heavy. In particular, heavy machine guns valuable for defense against American helicopters.

To destroy armored vehicles or bunkers, rocket propelled grenades Vietcong had a very effective and recoilless rifles. Mortar are also available in large quantities and have the advantage of being very easy to transport.

Many weapons, including traps and mines, which are homemade in the villages. The material ranges from refillable tin can to be disposed of wire, but the most important ingredient supplied by the enemy. Within a year, with a dud bomb could leave more than 20,000 tons of explosives are scattered throughout rural Vietnam. After the air raid, volunteers take the apparel and dangerous business starts creating new weapons.

Local forces also designed a primitive weapon, some are designed to scare intruders, but others are very dangerous. "Punji Trap" - a sharp spike hidden in holes - could easily disable an enemy soldier. Punjis often deliberately contaminated increase the risk of infection.

Vietcong who are experts in moving through and blend with the local area

Guerrilla tactics
tunnels In December 1965, Ho Chi Minh and the North Vietnamese leadership ordered changes to the way the war was to be fought in the South. From now on, the Vietcong would avoid a pitched battle with the United States except the possibility that they are clearly beneficial. There will be more hit and run attacks and ambushes. To fight the American build-up, Vietcong recruitment will be improved and more North Vietnamese Army soldiers will infiltrate South Vietnam.

Vietcong, following the example of the Chinese insurgents before them, have always given the highest priority to creating a secure base area. Their basic training, logistics centers and headquarters. They also offer a safe asylum for those times when the war might go bad.

Hiding the base area has always been a high priority for the Vietcong. Now, with the American reconnaissance aircraft everywhere, it is more important than ever to protect them. The remote swamps or forests, there are some problems, but more near the capital, it is much more difficult. The answer is to build a huge system of underground tunnels.

Commands coming from the headquarters of the NLF is absolutely clear. The tunnel is not treated as a mere shelter. They fought a base capable of providing continuous support to the troops. Even if a village is in the hands of the enemy, which under the NLF could still conduct offensive operations.

There are large and small complexes scattered throughout the country. Every village in the NLF had to dig three meters of tunnel a day. There is even a standard book specify how the tunnel should be built. The largest tunnel system located in the Iron Triangle and Cu Chi District, just 20 km from Saigon.

An American soldier carefully examine the Vietcong tunnels - they often boobytrapped if left
Close-up: Cu Chi

Regional Chuchi base in Cu Chi is an extensive network, with nearly 200 miles of tunnels. Facilities used by militants - a conference room or training area - have almost immediate access to the underground. Hidden trap door led down, then guarded room, for the long section. Periodically, the branch leading back to the surface and into the other secret. Some openings even hidden under the water of the river or canal.

At a deeper level, there is a space carved out for weapons factories and a well for water supply bases. There is a store room anad weapons rice, and sometimes there is a hospital or health center forward. Long communication tunnel connecting the base with much more complex.

Basic kitchen that is always close to the surface, with long, carved-out chimney designed for ease of cooking fumes and release it a bit far. Near the kitchen is the bedroom the guerrilla, where they could survive for weeks at a time if necessary. Everywhere in the upper level, there is a tunnel that leads upwards to hundreds of hidden shoot to defend the post basis.

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