The ride was not finished (378)
(Part three hundred seventy eight), Depok, West Java, Indonesia, September 30, 2015, 3:18 pm).
Humans have lost the harmonization with nature.
Between 1960 and the 1970s somber village, and the village upstream of the river Somber wayn and still wilderness.
Not many populated, both local (Dayak paser) bugis and the migrants from Java.
To reach the village upriver both from the village of New ulu, Balikpapan usually people using a small boat (with a paddle), and when the river again swift currents (due to rain) then take days just arrived in the village upstream of the river, now the village was already together with the city of Balikpapan, and the access road was already easy, either with a four wheel drive vehicles and the motorcycle.
Local residents are predominantly Dayak darts has been passed down to stay in the village upstream and upstream Somber wayn.
The population lives from farming fields, but because of soil conditions that farmers usually rice farming that can only be harvested once a year.
But usually in addition to growing rice, farmers usually intercrop fields with vegetables, such as cucumber, papaya, corn and cassava.
So, if the supply of rice food stocks depleted, farmers have enough food stocks of cassava, maize or corn harvest ever obtained from the forest,
In addition to fruits such as papaya and tomatoes are planted, forests are still many durian and rambutan and tan (duku forest).
While fish and other side dishes usually are Muslims hunt deer (deer) Dayak people call brackish, while for local residents Kaharingan Hindu, and Christian animsme they hunt deer and pigs.
Residents do not usually hunt python vast quantities and hanging on a tree branch along the river.
That's why when it even if along the river there are many python, residents quietly rowing boat from downstream to upstream without interruption, it has been said many were killed in a wrap or torn python is the hunter (soldiers) are often shot dead the head of the snake ,
While freshwater fish is very much alive in the river can be seen even eyes, because the river is clear.
Residents usually often lure fish, or by placing a bamboo fish trap (we call Seasoning).
The farmers when it was before planting rice, normally open farming land by burning forests.
Because if farmers clear land by selective logging (disposable knives / machete) to two hectares of farm land takes many months the newly created two hectares of farm land, whereas when burned, only within a period of a week.
However, the local cultivators as already experienced, they can burn the forest with an area that is measurable, if you want to use two hectares, then burned only two hectares, they have ways that forest fires do not spread and spread everywhere.
So, practical domestic life of farmers, even a darts Dayak longhouses inhabited between 3 to 5 heads of households in a single house.
Their daily meals with rice (rice / rice) coupled with fish, meat (jerky) deer, and a variety of vegetables, such as cassava leaves and cucumber. That they harvest themselves, and grow throughout the year, alternating between the rice harvest, corn, cassava and sago, it's just the same lauknya sepnjang year freshwater fish or meat jerky deer (deer) or pork (dayak Christian / Hindu Kaharingan)
majority Dayak Christian religion or Hindu Kaharingan, but especially Dayak darts, because the majority live in the coastal district darts, usually on the coast is much related to the nomads of origin bugis / Bajau (Sulawesi) were Muslim, so many Dayak darts follow the teachings of the religion of the bugis / Bajau this.
Because the basic food (staples) population was obtained from the field and was obtained from forests (sago), then people do not mess around with inflation and a wave of layoffs (layoffs) going on with the city's residents. Radio television especially, when it is not there, so that totally lack of information from the outside world /
There had been no fuss Presidential election campaign, Gunernur, mayors and regents, also there is no village elections, and there has not been appointed head of the village, only prince title for the head of the village / town.
No wonder when it has not all residents have a national identity card (KTP).
Many Dayak became adherents of Christianity, because when it's a lot pastor / priest from the Netherlands that many entered the woods even many established a church in the woods.
The lives of the villagers were in harmony with nature, because by nature they can reap the results sustainable.
In 1970's, even though my father was a soldier, but decided to move home from boarding army sentosa II Balikpapan, by building their own home on the beach in Kampung Baru Central, Balikpapan, Understandably we sekelurga already have siblings six people (ampai retirement, My father had five sons, five daughters) if calculated with miscarriage three times, then my mother gave birth to (have children 13).
So my father to build a house big stage, which under the sea under the house is when the tide).
So wc / toilet / latrine immediately plunging into the sea. Understandably when there was no family planning (KB), so all children can full of rice rations from office.
At this time our childhood together local residents spend leisure time with berenamg and rowing a small boat on the beach right behind the house. Our Kdang fishing, and capture crabs are numerous in the back of the house.
At all times we were with friends pedaling boats to around estuaries Wayne and rivers Somber in a new village end, there we menjaing crabs and a wide variety of species, including lobster and snails mangrove (snail mangrove) that is widely available on the outskirts of mangrove forests when it still adorn along the coast of the Gulf of Balikpapan.
In 1990 when we came back to this place (after our family moved to Jakarta in early 1973) just to visit family relatives who still live in London, we found the coast of Balikpapan often found waste plastic and waste are other than the spill.
Suli said local fishermen would be found again many species of fish, crab, shrimp (lobster) and snails in the coastal mangrove Balikpapan, other than destroyed mangrove, coastal beaches was tercenar various garbage.
We also could not find again orangutans Daulu much hanging on trees along from downstream to upstream, including the python has been difficult to find.
Orang-utan we can still be found in captivity orang utan in the river wayn maintained Governmental Organization which administers the Orang Utan.
Now the island of Borneo are no longer predominantly used wilderness, now htannya many burned to be replaced function with oil palm plantations, and the flow of river water was shrinking, because the function trees to absorb rain water before it flows into the river began to disappear, Greed human economy that is open farmland oil by burning forests, resulting in Indonesia are now included in emergency conditions fumes
Indonesian forest fire incident can Samai 1997
(BBC) Forest and land fires in Indonesia in 1997 reached millions of hectares.
Extent and economic impacts of forest and land fires in a number of provinces in Indonesia is very likely to match the scale of similar incidents in 1997, according to the researchers.
Through monitoring, Robert Field assess land and forest fires that hit Indonesia this year is very severe.
Field, a Columbia University researcher who conducts studies at the Goddard Institute for Space Studies Space Agency the United States, even believes that the situation in Indonesia can be more difficult if the drought continues as a result of the El Nino phenomenon.
"The conditions in Singapore and Sumatra are the path approaching the southeastern part of 1997. If the weather forecast dry season lasts longer, it could be considered that 2015 will be recorded as the worst incident in the record," said Fields was quoted as saying by AFP news agency.
In the period 1997-1998, the Indonesian government estimates that the amount of land that is exposed to the fire reached 750,000 hectares.
However, various environmental agencies such as the Forum for the Environment (WALHI) estimate the number reached 13 million hectares. Then study the National Development Planning Agency acted together with the Asian Development Bank (ADB) estimates that the amount of land affected by fire reached 9.75 million hectares.
About the economic impact, the amount of the estimate varies. Economy and Environment Programme for Southeast Asia Indonesia predicts harmed US $ 5 billion to $ 6 billion as a result of land and forest fires in 1997-1998.
Then, Bappenas and ADB study recorded a loss of US $ 4.861, equivalent to Rp711 trillion.
Indonesia's economic losses due to fire and smoke in 1997 ranged from $ 4 billion to $ 9 billion.
Herry Purnomo, research institute Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), also argues land and forest fires this year equaled the record in 1997.
"The phenomenon of El Nino this year is slightly smaller compared with 1997. However, the resilience of our ecosystems more vulnerable to forest fires because we've been degraded by industry and oil palm plantations," said Herrera told BBC Indonesia, Jerome Wirawan.
Herrera did not rule out the possibility that the economic impacts of forest and land fires this year could match the record 1997.
"The province can only Rp20 trillion loss due to fire. Well, now there are at least five provinces were affected by severe, namely Riau, Jambi, South Sumatra, West Kalimantan, and Central Kalimantan, "said Herrera.
According to him, the value of the loss is not only calculated solely by the missing wood fire. "There were disrupted economic activity, which affected public health, water damaged, transportation, and others," said Herrera.
In an interview with BBC Indonesia, Head of Data Information and Public Relations of National Disaster Management Agency (BNPB), Sutopo Purwo Nugroho, said the economic impact of smog disaster that occurred in several provinces in Indonesia in 2015 could exceed 20 trillion.
That number, he said, based on last year's data.
It was revealed that the losses due to haze in 2014, calculated over the three months from February to April only from Riau province reached Rp20 trillion.
Three provinces set the emergency response asap
Land and forest fires that cause smog has become a regular annual event.
Indonesian government insisted would not accept assistance offered two neighboring countries, Singapore and Malaysia, which for many years was also affected smog from forest fires and land in Indonesia.
In a BBC interview, President Joko Widodo said Indonesia has been making a serious effort, by deploying thousands of members of the military and police as well as dozens of helicopters to overcome.
President Joko Widodo said need three years to complete the physical work in order to stop the haze.
"It means we've mobilized all of them to handle, but this takes time. I estimate three years doing physical work, "said Jokowi told the BBC's Karishma Vaswani.
While the Minister of Forestry and Environment, Siti Nurbaya, explain the type of assistance that Singapore has to offer the same to that of Indonesia, the Chinook helicopters, to help the blackout.
But the number is only one unit.
Because residents to visit the health center is high enough associated with upper respiratory tract infection and the age at high risk are infants, we took the city government hall for evacuation.
"He (Singapore) only give one plane, so unless ngasihnya 20 tablets or 30," said Siti.
State of emergency
A total of three provinces, namely Riau, Jambi and Central Kalimantan has imposed the status of emergency after weeks of air pollution indicators in the region beyond the dangerous stage.
On Wednesday, September 30th, the indicator pollutant in Pekanbaru, Riau -according to the calculation of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geofisika- reach 450 or 100 higher than the level of danger.
Desi was unfortunate condition, the mother of a one year old infant who was treated at a hospital in Pekanbaru, Riau, since suffering a lung infection. Infection was aggravated by a thick haze over the last few months.
"My son had been in the house, do not go anywhere due to the smog. Was still in contact with a lung infection. Why is the government not doing anything? Why wait till our children die all because the smoke? "He said.
Chief Medical Officer of the City of Pekanbaru, Drg. Helda Suryani, said it has taken various steps, including providing the hall on the third floor of an office building Mayor Pekanbaru as evacuation sites for newborns up to six months old.
The hall is now occupied by four children, a pregnant woman, and three parent chaperones.
On Wednesday (30/09), the indicator pollutant in Pekanbaru, Riau, according to the calculation of Meteorology, Climatology, and Geophysics reach 450 or 100 higher than the level of danger.
"As citizens of a visit to the health center is high enough associated with upper respiratory tract infection and the age at high risk are infants, we took the city government hall to evacuate," said Helda told reporters in Pekanbaru, Sari Indriati.
Evacuation of smog areas deemed important by Azisman Saad, lung specialists in Pekanbaru. However, according to him, when the evacuation is done in the same region, it will not be effective.
"If evacuation in Pekanbaru also, I think the less effective. Because Pekanbaru been shrouded in smog, "said Azisman.
Who 'actor' behind the burning of forests and land?
Each group conducting land clearing activities will receive a percentage of its own revenue.
There are about 20 actors involved in the field and gain economic benefits from forest and land fires. Most of the tissue of interest and benefit from economic actors is difficult for law enforcement action.
Government action imprison or prosecute individuals and companies suspected of burning the land would not be enough to prevent recurrent smog.
Facts and conclusions expressed in the research on 'The Political Economy of Land and Forest Fire' of researcher Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) Herry Purnomo.
Complexity in the field, according to Herrera, occur because the perpetrators forest burners, both the community and the middle classes and the company is always in touch with powerful people, both at the district, national, and even up to the level of ASEAN.
Herry Purnomo study found that the price of land has been cleared by burning it will rise as ready for planting oil palm.
"It is not easy for the governors who will demand (burning wood), it could be that has (garden) oil palm, forest fires, related to the specific party that is strong in the area, so the regent or governor is not easy too (acting), must see the political constellation "Herry on BBC Indonesia, Wednesday (23/9).
These actors, based on his research, work as a form of "organized crime".
There are groups that carry out different tasks, such as land claims, organize farmers who do slashing or cutting or burning, until the marketing team and involving village officials.
But not only at the central level, the landlord could be relatives of the villagers, the company's staff, employees in the district, a businessman, or a medium-scale investors from Jakarta, Bogor, or Surabaya.
Each group conducting land clearing activities will receive a percentage of income alone, but on average, the board of farmer groups received the largest portion of revenue, between 51% -57%, while groups of farmers slashing, cutting, and burning gets the portion of income between 2 % -14%.
In his research, Herry found that the price of land has been cleared by the clearing of fields offered at a price of Rp 8.6 million per hectare.
However, land in 'ready for planting' or been burned instead will increase its price, namely Rp11.2 million per hectare.
Then three years later, after the land has been planted ready for harvest, growers are already so it can be sold at a price of Rp40 million per hectare.
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Landowners burning could be of major cities or relatives of the villagers, district employees, to researchers.
The increase in the economic value of the land is what makes actors who sought to benefit from land and forest fires occur constantly.
In addition, the patterns of buying and selling land, land preparation is the responsibility of the buyer, if it will be burned or cleaned mechanically. The cheaper the cost of cleaning, lucky buyers will be even greater.
For comparison, according to Herrera, per hectare burnt costs $ 10-20, while the land is cleaned mechanically requires $ 200 per hectare.
Herry study conducted at 11 sites in four districts in Riau, namely Rokan Hulu, Rokan Hilir, Dumai and Bengkalis using mapping, surveying, and policy approaches.
In Riau, there are 60 oil palm plantations and industrial tree plantations 26.
Companies or individuals in the area that became the owner of oil palm plantations in the area can find political patrons at the local level.
Herrera pointed out, "Suppose there are small-scale enterprises that have a very strong patron political parties in the district that affect the processes of decision-making and enforcement in the area. It may be that they are strong supporters of the incumbent."
Players at the intermediate level or 'barons', Herrera discovered, could be anyone.
"From the individual government officials, police, soldiers, researchers, could be involved, can have up to hundreds of hectares of palm and palm in the process of development can (do) burning to welcome the next rainy season," he said.
Actors this is illegible or caught in a pattern of law enforcement is happening now to deal with smog.
To find it, it is important to trace where products of palm oil from plantations is channeled.
Against these findings, spokesman for the Association of Indonesian Palm Oil Association (GAPKI), Tofan Mahdi, said there are 2,500 oil palm companies small and middle class, and in total there are only 635 companies that are members GAPKI.
Haze in Riau has been going on for the last 18 years.
"That so our members I am sure no (burning of land), because we control up and down. Outside members GAPKI, we do not have the instruments or interests, but we encourage, support what was presented by the governor of South Kalimantan for example, so that they (oil companies Small and medium oil) to be a member GAPKI order to control more easily, "he said.
However, Tofan admit that they have not had a rigorous method in monitoring to bottom. "But GAPKI have standards, have requirements, comply with the rules in accordance with the regulations at the central, local and regional," he said.
In addition, the Riau Police has established PT Inti Langgam Hybrids also a member GAPKI as suspects forest fires.
Law enforcement efforts that have so far not been touched political patrons who protect the company or the owner of land burned.
Edi Saputra, farmers in Ogan Ogan Ilir, South Sumatra said that the practice of burning the land is already underway in the community for hundreds of years.
But the practice is not carried out every year, usually only 5-10 years to coincide with the planting season.
"We have hundreds of years to burn, but why do we fuss now about the smoke, it means, why it appears to fire a powerful? Because all the concessions it granted to the corporation, so the land is so flammable. Land corporations that's dehydrated, can not be planted with rice . Now than before, far indeed, if scratched, there are spots of fire, direct burning the land, "he said.
Sanctions forest fires: Why are large companies 'do not touch'?
23 September 2015
Most companies incendiary forest had been sued, but the process is vicious
Environmental activists in Riau appreciate sanctions to companies related to land and forest fires in Sumatra, but they question why a number of high profile companies 'do not touch'.
Coalition monitors deforestation in Riau said, the government can also provide a firmer sanctions to bring the case to court and require the companies to pay compensation to the people affected by the haze.
"Giving the sanctions were a step faster, quite promising. But, we'll see whether similar steps will be carried out on large companies that are detected and recorded fires and experienced fires every year in its concession area," said the activist coalition monitors destruction Forest (Eyes on the forest) in the province of Riau, Afdhal Mahyuddin, told BBC Indonesia, Heyder Affan, Wednesday (09/23) morning.
Earlier, four companies in Sumatra sanctioned by the Ministry of Environment and Forests (KLHK) related to land and forest fires.
Companies whose licenses are suspended PT LIH (Riau), PT TPR (South Sumatra) and PT WAJ (South Sumatra), while PT HSL (Riau) license has been revoked.
The companies must provide fire prevention equipment
The companies must cease all operations in the field and meet its obligations, such as fire prevention equipment complement.
This sanction was based news event special task force (Satgasus) Ministry of Environment and Forestry. They currently have visited 286 locations burnt in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
Further Afdhal Mahyuddin said he was not too surprised to learn that the government had frozen the permission PT LIH.
"Because, in 2013 and then, they have become suspect and hitherto untried," said Afdal.
Similarly, Afdal was not too surprised when the government revoked the business license of PT HSL in Riau. "Naturally, as has long been inactive," he added.
However, he added, the government should be able to provide similar sanctions, or firmer, against other major companies which for years doing similar violations.
"We note, there are several companies concessions indicated to violations. Surprisingly, they are not revoked or be sanctioned," said Afdal.
Activists regard, many large companies that pass incendiary forest
"I think it needs action against large-scale enterprises or high profile," he added.
He also proposed, the penalty should be more than just a suspension or revocation of its operating license, such as bringing the case to a criminal or civil court.
"They also have to pay compensation to the affected community widely due to the smog," he said further.
Currently, the team visited 286 locations KLHK burnt in Sumatra and Kalimantan.
Further, he said, KLHK said the company suspended the license shall complete the infrastructure is yet to be fulfilled to reduce the potential for fires.
Freezing will impact revocation of license if the company is found guilty in court, officials said KLHK.
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"What is the government waiting for our children die due to smoke?"
In the room is equipped air regulator on the third floor of City Hall Pekanbaru, Apriyani looking at a four-month-old baby, slept soundly.
The 35-year-old woman is one of four mothers who had taken refuge in the emergency infant care provided Pekanbaru city government. This is an effort to protect the baby from toxic fumes as a result of land and forest fires that have been going on for months.
"Here, my baby free of smoke. Unlike at home," said Apriyani.
'When we stay at home, my baby is coughing continuously. If here, the office is closed, and there are air purifiers.
Air pollution in Pekanbaru recorded on 1000 figures Pollutant Standard Index (PSI). Though 100 PSI alone is classified as unhealthy, and if more than 300 is considered dangerous.
"Infants who suffer the most. This same baby was constantly coughing"
There is no baby beds are rented, and oxygen cylinders, but Afriyani mengaakan he did not want to stay there for long.
"I wish the government to work harder to eliminate smoke, so that our children do not trouble breathing every time. Because it is bad for their health, right?
Dr. Helda Suryani, head of the health department in Pekanbaru said the shelter was reserved especially for poor families who are vulnerable.
"The rich have their own air conditioning, and can find themselves a safer place. While this place for those whose houses we see every day full of harmful fumes.
When asked why so long after the new government to provide shelter, he laughed wryly.
"Why so long? We've been praying for rain, and when the army came to help, cleaner air for two days. But now here again. So it would be like this forever."
As for Desi, the shelter is too late. This young mother sitting with her one year old at the Hospital of Santa Maria. He was diagnosed with a lung infection.
"I keep my child indoors all the time. We're not going anywhere because of this smoke, but my son still in contact with pneumonia."
"Why is the government not doing anything?" he asked
"Is the government waiting for our children die due to smoke?" (BBC)