Unfinished journey (22)
(Part twenty-two, Depok, West Java, Indonesia, August 31, 2014, 8:00 pm)
In the 1990s when Indonesia became the largest exporting liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world some of Indoneian Journalist are invited by the Osaka one of imported of liquefied natural gas from Indonesia (from Bontang, East Kalimantan, the Japanese power company Osaka Gas to see gas power generation facilities Osaka gas in the city of Osaka, Japan.
From Jakarta, a group of journalists riding Garuda Indonesia straight to Osaka, after two days inspecting the facilities the Osaka Gas we then quick train ride to the city of Tokyo, to see other companies importing liquefied natural gas from Indonesia.
For me my visit to Japan is my third visit, after the first start of the year 1982, when it was first out of the country, the end of the second visit in 1983.
No wonder my preparation in my third visit was better prepared than the other journalists, because I already know that the cost of living in Japan is very expensive so in this visit I brought two large suitcases containing instant noodles.
The lesson was incredible, the price of food on the sidewalk for example small aqua bottle when in Jakarta Rp 500.- the time in Tokyo could reach Rp 50.000, -
As a result, by-by Instant Noodles that I had not brought up in the city of San Diego, California, United States (where my younger brother Sri Mulyani with her husband and their four children live), but it is up ahead for Japan because the Indonesian journalists took turns coming into my room to ask for Instant noodles.
In our travels in damping Pertamina staff representative office in Tokyo that Japanese citizens. During busy travel picking up a used beverage bottles are thrown into train floor by Indonesian journalists to be thrown into the trash. Indeed, the Japanese are very disciplined about the cleanliness of the environment.
|Winter in Japan|
After reviewing the Osaka Gas facilities in Osaka and Tokyo, we review the various tourist sites in Japan
Indonesia export of liquefied natural gas (LNG) 818 Bcf during 2013 and is currently the fourth largest LNG exporter in the world.
In the report of the Energy Information Administration (EIA), energy agencies from the United States (USA), Monday (10/3) noted that Indonesia's share in the global energy markets fell due to global and domestic demand growth
Having accounted for over a third of exports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) world in the 1990s, Indonesia's share in the global market is currently only about 7 percent.
lng export destination
According to the EIA, although Indonesian LNG exports dropped by 40 percent since 1999, fueled by economic growth boost domestic energy consumption, particularly natural gas, the global LNG demand has risen more than 150 percent over the same period.
Until 2006, when the share of exports shifted by Qatar, Indonesia is the world's largest LNG exporter.
According to EIA estimates, Indonesia is currently the fourth largest LNG exporter in the world after Qatar, Malaysia, and Australia.
Indonesia exports nearly all of its LNG to South Korea, Japan, China, and Taiwan, while exports in smaller quantities into Mexico and several other countries. during the
"In 2013, Indonesia exported approximately 818 Bcf of LNG," the EIA said.
LNG exports, further EIA, politically sensitive in Indonesia due to rising domestic demand for energy.
The rise in natural gas demand growth will push the government to implement policies to secure domestic supply for the local market.
To meet the domestic market obligation (DMO) will be natural gas, LNG producers have to provide 25 percent of the supply to the domestic market.
Indonesia currently has three LNG facilities, which in Arun, Bontang and Tangguh.
IHS Global Insight estimates that the total natural gas regasification capacity of approximately 1.5 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) per year.
Two new regasification facilities, Donggi-Senoro and Sengkang, Sulawesi being built. Donggi-Senoro new government approval after the developer allocates 30 percent of its production to the domestic market, exceeding by 25 percent DMO rules.
|Map of Japan|
As part of efforts to meet domestic demand, Indonesia regasification capacity expansion plan. PT Pertamina plans to convert the Arun LNG regasification terminal to be serving the needs of the domestic market.
IHS Global Insight estimates, the results of this conversion refinery could operate at the end of 2014 with a capacity of approximately 146 Bcf per year.
In addition, Pertamina and state electricity company plans to develop eight small LNG receiving terminal in the eastern region in 2015, with a total capacity of 67 Bcf per year. The government is targeting these facilities supply the energy for domestic electricity generation.
In December 2013, Indonesia signed its first gas import contract with Cheniere Energy of the United States in which Indonesia will receive by 38 Bcf of LNG per year for 20 years from Corpus Christi terminal is located on the Gulf Coast, USA, began in 2018.
Many interesting facts and boast about natural gas in Indonesia, which unfortunately not many of us know. Among them that Indonesia is one of the countries producing liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the world, is also the largest LNG exporter 2nd or 3rd in the world (catching up with Malaysia), while number one is still held by Qatar. Another fact is that Indonesia could still save large amounts of gas reserves which have not been exploited. These facts are actually so gives hope to us all, that Indonesia can succeed through periods where diminishing and expensive fossil-based energy sources.
The world's total gas reserves are 6,112 trillion square feet, and Indonesia was ranked 11th world with reserves of 98 trillion square feet. Here's a list of the top 20 countries with the largest gas reserves in units trillion square feet:
1 Russian = 1,680
2. Iran = 971
3. Qatar = 911
4. Saudi Arabia = 241
5. United Arab Emirates = 214
6. AmerikaSerikat = 193
7 Nigeria = 185
8. Algeria = 161
9. Venezuela = 151
10 Iraq = 112
11. Indonesian = 98
12. Norway = 84
13. Malaysia = 75
14. Turkmenistan = 71
15. Uzbekistan = 66
16. Kazakhstan = 65
17. Netherlands = 62
18. Egypt = 59
19. Canada = 57
Kuwait 20 = 56
|Train in Japan|
The total reserves of over 20 countries is 5.510 trillion square feet and the total reserves of the countries outside the top 20 in the above is 602 trillion square feet.
One of the gas fields in Indonesia are also included in the list of the largest gas fields in units (* 109 m³), the Tangguh gas fields in Papua. Here is the list:
1 Asalouyeh, South Pars Gas Field (10000-15000)
2 Urengoy gas field (10000)
3 Shtokman field (3200)
4. Karachaganak field, Kazakhstan (1800)
5. Slochteren (1500)
6 Troll (1325)
7 Greater Gorgon (1100)
8. Shah Deniz gas field (800)
9. Tangguh gas field, Indonesia (500)
10 Sakhalin-I (485)
11. Ormen Lange (400)
12. Jonah Field (300)
13. Snøhvit (140)
14. Barnett Shale (60-900)
15. Maui gas field (?)
File: Natural gas production world.PNG
Figure I: Production of natural gas world, brown is the biggest production, followed by the red color
Actually, the use of natural gas in Indonesia started in the 1960s. Namely, when the production of natural gas from natural gas fields in the Hall PT Stanvac Indonesia, South Sumatra sent through a gas pipeline to the fertilizer plant Pusri IA, PT Fertilizer Sriwidjaja in Palembang. Utilization of natural gas in Indonesia is growing rapidly since 1974, when natural gas began piped natural gas from gas fields in Prabumulih, South Sumatra to the fertilizer plant Pusri II, III and Pusri Pusri IV in Palembang.
Because it was too old and inefficient, in 1993 Pusri IA closed, and replaced by IB Pusri built by the sons of the Indonesian nation itself. At that time, Pusri IB is the most modern fertilizer plant in Asia, by utilizing high technology.
In West Java, in the same year, natural gas is also supplied through a gas pipeline from natural gas fields off the coast (off shore) and the Java Sea region for Cirebon fertilizer plants and medium and heavy industries in the region of West Java and Banten, Cilegon. Natural gas pipeline that extends from the region of Cirebon towards Cilegon, Banten, among other natural gas supply to the cement plants, fertilizer plants, ceramic plants, steel plants and gas power plants and steam.
LNG vs. LPG (LPG)
Perhaps there are many of us but wonder about the difference LNG with LPG. Technically and focus usage, both are different. Many of us are much more familiar with LPG (LPG) compared to LNG. LPG is a mixture of various elements Hydrocarbon derived from the refining of crude oil and gaseous. By increasing pressure and decreasing temperature, the gas turns into a liquid, so it can be referred to as "liquefied petroleum gas" or Liquefied Petroleum Gas. In Indonesia, LPG has been introduced by Pertamina since 1968, and is now more widely use.
While LNG or Liquefied Natural Gas is liquefied natural gas, the chemical composition terbanyaknya is Methane, ethane last bit, Propane, Butane and Pentane and very little nitrogen. LNG is usually used in industry as a fuel.
How current developments?
Of course we all hope very large, so that the gas, the nation's outstanding assets can be managed by and utilized for the nation, for the sake of continuity of development and growth in the various sectors. It is news because the plume in June of this year the Indonesian people, especially Lampung people should be proud, because one of the liquefied natural gas facility (LNG) in the world will start to operate in Lampung. The LNG facility called floating storage and regasification unit (FSRU) or storage and regasification units and floating made by PGN (Perusahaan Gas Negara). With a capacity of 170,000 metric tons, becoming the largest FSRU Lampung in Indonesia. The second position is Tough (in Papua) with a capacity of 145 cubic meters and the third position is Bontang (East Kalimantan) with a capacity of 125 cubic meters.
|Japan Rail Map|
Scores Hoegh FSRU Belawan Job
Figure II: FSRU (source: LNGworldnews.com)
FSRU is a floating facility that serves as a storage and evaporation back in the form of liquefied natural gas into a gas form as the original. FSRU is one solution to facilitate transport PGN gas and gas to meet the needs in the areas far from the source of the gas, because the cost of construction of the gas pipeline infrastructure is very expensive. Indonesian gas fields themselves are mostly located in the eastern part of Indonesia, plus the geographical shape our country is made up of islands make gas transportation more difficult. In this situation the FSRU be one solution.
In the next operation, Lampung FSRU will take natural gas supply from Tangguh Block in Papua and bring it to sail to Lampung. Previously, the supply of gas exported to the Sempra Tangguh Block, USA.
Lampung FSRU is a capital-intensive investment, but certainly worth the economic impact and positive impact on other sectors. PGN is committed to investing up to US $ 3,000 million for the manufacture of Lampung FSRU, and construction started since February 2013 yesterday at the Hyundai Heavy Industries shipyard in Ulsan, South Korea. As for the operation PGN chose Hoegh Ltd., a provider of LNG transportation services and is based in Norway, and the government-owned industrial engineering company, PT Engineering Industry.
Once again, this is a bold capital-intensive investment. Just imagine, to connect Labuan Maringgai in Lampung and East Lampung FSRU location in the territory of Labuan offshore Maringgai, PGN to build a gas pipeline system infrastructure along 21 KM. Then PGN also built along the distribution pipe 88 KM from Station Gas Revenue and Dividers in Labuan Maringgai towards the city of Bandar Lampung. Lampung is the second FSRU built FSRU PGN. Earlier, in cooperation with Pertamina PGN through its subsidiary PT Nusantara Regas, West Java FSRU building which has been operating since 2012.
Figure III: West Java FSRU (nusantararegas.com)
Lampung FSRU Why so important?
Lampung FSRU is worth the investment. Later, this facility will meet the energy needs of the public natural gas in Lampung, South Sumatra and West Java-both in domestic, commercial, industrial, and electricity-. In the electricity sector, PT PLN (Persero) will also use it to meet the needs of gas-fired power plants, especially to sustain power generation during peak evening. With the increasing ability of the supply of gas to the area of Lampung and West Java, the energy needs of a growing industrial consumers will be satisfied.
The existence and stability of gas supply, especially to trigger the growth of the business sector, and others to foster investor confidence in Indonesia's ability to meet energy needs in the industrial sector. Continue the growth of the industrial sector would also open up a wide range of economic opportunities in the region, be it employment or business-sector small and medium enterprises.
The energy pillar named PGN
Not surprisingly, many of us think that the manager of the gas in Indonesia from upstream to downstream is just Pertamina, namely in the form of LPG cylinders in the kitchen of our homes. In fact, for nearly 50 years, there is a special SOE handles natural gas, namely PGN. In the past, PGN, PN Gas. PGN has so far managed to build a natural gas pipeline in Indonesia over 6,000 KM long (longer than the distance between Sabang to Merauke is 5248 KM!)
Like the other big cities in the world, actually being there certain areas in several Indonesian cities which have long been fitted with gas lines, for example in the Menteng area of Jakarta. Besides in Jakarta, PGN also operates in West Java (Bekasi, Karawang, Bogor, Banten, Cirebon), East Java (Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan), and on the island of Sumatra (Medan, Pekanbaru, Batam, Lampung, Palembang).
PGN Ltd. together with Hoegh FSRU Lampung will work for up to 20 years, a big commitment, and SKK Gas has also made plans to supply Lampung FSRU 2021. Simply biased concluded that the existence of greater energy supply and stable will bring progress and development for the area of Lampung, South Sumatra and West Java. Lampung FSRU will bring unimaginable multiple effects, and could become the benchmark for energy solutions in other areas in Indonesia, to grow and develop a sustainable economy.
Arun Natural Gas Liquefaction
Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Arun.
PT Arun Natural Gas Liquefaction
Company Type enclosed public
Industrial / Natural Gas services
Established March 16, 1974
Headquarters Lhokseumawe, Indonesia
Indonesia & Asia service area
Key people Fauzi Husin (President Director)
Fuad Bukhari (Vice President)
Liquefied natural gas products
Employees 430 - November 2010 
The location of liquefied natural gas was first discovered in Arun
PT Arun Natural Gas Liquefaction, better known by PT Arun NGL, is a producer of liquefied natural gas in Indonesia. In 1990, PT Arun LNG producing company in the world. [Need reference] Arun is a subsidiary of PT Pertamina. Located in Lhokseumawe, North Aceh, this company has a processing unit 6, but this time only 2 units in operation due to the depletion of natural gas reserves there. PT Arun is one of the largest foreign exchange earner for the city Lhokseumawe and Indonesia.
2 gas field
4 See also
6 External links
History [edit | edit source]
Since 1968, Mobil Oil did production sharing contracts with Pertamina to search oil resources of the Earth, on land and offshore. In 1969, Mobil Oil began to exert his search in Aceh with a primary focus in North Aceh. Drilling is carried out near the village of Arun is the fifteenth conducted by Mobil Oil. Since the first search location indicated on the energy source to the point of drilling the fourteenth in a new field that was not known before, the company has discovered oil and gas with carbon dioxide content is too high so difficult to develop.
Socony Oil Company which had operated in Sumatra in Aceh has detected that there is a substantial amount of gas content. On that basis, the search is coordinated by Mobil Oil Pertamina Unit I is concentrated in Arun village. The village is a village in the district Arun Syamtalira, North Aceh, whose name was later used as the name of this natural gas company.
Dated October 24, 1971, natural gas contained under Arun village found with reserves estimated to reach 17.1 trillion cubic feet. Today it is the 73rd day since the exploratory test led Bob Graves, chairman of Mobil Oil exploration in Aceh, begins.
In 1972 discovered offshore natural gas resources in the fields of North Sumatra Offshore (NSO) located in the waterway at a distance of approximately 107.6 miles from Blang refinery PT Arun in Lancang. Furthermore, in 1998 the construction project done NSO "A" which covered the gas processing unit for offshore facilities (Offshore) and PT Arun. This facility was built to process 450 MMSCFD of natural gas from offshore as an additional feedstock natural gas from fields in Lhoksukon arun diminishing.
Dated March 16, 1974, PT Arun was established as a company operator. The company recently inaugurated by President Soeharto on 19 September 1978 after a successful first condensate export to Japan (October 14, 1977).
Construction of 6 units of processing (train) liquefaction of natural gas in the Arun LNG plant through several stages, namely:
Train 1,2 and 3 (Arun Project 1) was built in early 1974 and completed in late 1978 by Bechtel Inc.
Train 4 and 5 (Arun Project II) was built in February 1982 and was completed in late 1983 undertaken by Chiyoda
Train 6 (Arun III Project) was built in November 1984 and completed in September 1986 undertaken by the Japan Gas Corporation (JGC)
In February 1987, called Arun refinery LPG LPG Project constructed and carried out by the Japan Gas Corporation (JGC). This refinery was completed in 1989.
Gas field [edit | edit source]
According to the measurement data electronically through the films taken in the field and analyzed in the center of the analysis of Mobil Oil in Dallas, United States, Arun gas field located in the limestone layer at a depth of 10,000 feet (3,048 meters). Gas content reached 17.1 trillion cubic feet with the pressure of 499 kg / cm, temperature of 177 ° C, and a thickness of 300 meters. The amount is expected to be able to supply six units of processing kitchen (train) with a capacity of 300 million scfd respectively (Standard Cubic Feet Day) for a period of 20 years. The gas field consists of four (4) pieces of the cluster gas and condensate, and gas and condensate collection sent to units in Point "A" is then sent to the Arun LNG plant using a pipe:
Gas using a 42 inch diameter pipe.
Condensate using 16-inch diameter pipe.
LPG propane using a 20-inch diameter pipe.
Arun LNG plant in Blang Lancang covers an area of 271 ha with a length of 1.7 km and a width of 1.5 km and a special port carrier dilangkapi with production.
Arun LNG plant is equipped with 2 ports for LNG production delivery to the purchaser, while for the delivery of condensate comes with 2 pieces means of loader, the Single Point Mooring (SPM) and Multi Buoy Mooring (MBM).
NSO natural gas field contains H2S and CO2 are high that the separation process is required prior to entry into LNG trains. This effort to reduce levels of H2S from 1.59% to 80 ppm and CO2 from 33.21% to 25.54 mol%, so in accordance with the design specifications of LNG trains.
Organization [edit | edit source]
President Director of PT Arun NGL based in Jakarta, which is currently held by Fauzi Husin. While Vice President based in Lhokseumawe and held by Fuad Bukhari. Vice President in charge of three divisions and three non-division level sections, namely:
Maid Field Division
And Development Services Division
Public Relations Section
Finance and Accounting Section
General Audit Section
Ownership of company stock held by Pertamina (55%), Exxon Mobil (30%), and Japan Indonesia LNG Company (abbreviated JILCO; 15%).
Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Pending changes shown on page iniBelum Checked
Badak Natural Gas Liquefaction
Rhino logo NGL.svg
Type of Non-Profit Company
Industry / natural gas processing services
Established 26 November 1974
Headquarters Wisma Nusantara, Jakarta & East Kalimantan, Indonesia
Key people Djohardi A. Kusuma, Chairman
Rachmad Hardadi, President & CEO
Daniel Purba, Director & COO
LNG and LPG products
1,800 employees (employee)
2,600 (labor contractors)
The main office of PT Badak NGL in Bontang.
PT Badak Natural Gas Liquefaction or better known as PT Badak NGL is a producer of liquefied natural gas (LNG (Liquid Natural Gas) in Indonesia and one of the largest LNG plants in the world. Company is located in Bontang, East Kalimantan, and has 8 process train (a - H) which is able to produce 22.5 Mtpa of LNG (million metric tons of LNG per year). PT Badak NGL is one of the largest foreign exchange earner for the city of Bontang and Indonesia.
1 shareholders 
2 gas Suppliers
3.1 The discovery of massive natural gas
3.2 Establishment and development of the company
3.3 The decline in production
5 See also
6 External links
Shareholders  [edit | edit source]
VICO Indonesia: 20%
Japan Indonesia LNG Co. (JILCO): 15%
Total E & P Indonesia: 10%
Gas suppliers [edit | edit source]
Total E & P Indonesia
History [edit | edit source]
The discovery of massive natural gas [edit | edit source]
Badak LNG project began when Huffco (now VICO Indonesia), an oil and gas contractor with the PSC on Pertamina, managed to find a giant natural gas reserves in the field of Muara Badak, East Kalimantan in February 1972, after the discovery of massive natural gas reserves are also similar in the Arun field , Aceh by Exxon Mobil.
When the LNG business is not widely known and there are only four LNG plant in the world with experience of 3-4 years of operation. Although no previous experience in the field of LNG, Pertamina and Huffco Inc., agreed to develop an LNG project to export natural gas in liquid form in large quantities. Pertamina, Mobil Oil, and Huffco Inc. trying to sell the project to the two potential LNG customers, potential funders, and potential partners around the world. Those efforts finally paid off with the approval of the LNG sales contracts to five companies of Japan: Chubu Electric Co., Kansai Electric Power Co., Kyushu Electric Power Co., Nippon Steel Corp. and Osaka Gas Co. Ltd., on December 5, 1973, known as "The 1973 Contract".
The establishment and development of the company [edit | edit source]
26 November 1974, the company established by PT Badak NGL shareholders are Pertamina, VICO and JILCO. The company is entrusted to operate the Badak LNG plant. The company name was taken from the name of the area where the discovery of natural gas reserves in the giant.
Refinery Construction began on 26 November 1974 and was completed 36 months later, on July 5, 1977 with the successful construction of the first LNG train (train A). The first refinery was inaugurated on August 1, 1977 and first LNG shipment made on August 9, 1977 to Senboku, Japan by ship LNG Aquarius.
PT Badak also have 4 parallel pipelines measuring 36 "and 42" which serves to send natural gas from the gas fields to the LNG and LPG feedstock than ever that only one pipeline measuring 36 "in the early days of the company stands. Moreover, on the same line there is one pipe size 42 "owned by Fertilizer East Kalimantan.
For 25 years, the Badak LNG plant at first only has 2 train, but now it has 8 train and coupled with LPG-producing facilities, along with the discovery of natural gas reserves that are not less great around Muara Badak. When operating at full capacity, Badak can produce an average of 140,000 tonnes m3 of natural gas per day. The total production of natural gas annually successfully upgraded from 3.3 million tonnes of LNG per year in 1977 to more than 22 million tonnes of LNG and 1.2 million tonnes of LPG per year. LNG production in Badak NGL is the largest in the entire world.
The decline in production [edit | edit source]
Since 2001, production of LNG from Bontang began to decline. From 379 in 2001 to 341 cargoes of cargo in 2005 This decrease is caused by PT Badak no longer able to fulfill its commitment to the buyer. In addition, government policies also reduce the export of LNG from the Bontang LNG diverted due to meet supply several fertilizer plants in the country. LPG production also had to be stopped while seeing reduced supply of gas to PT Badak, starting from the year 2006 
LPG production was halted by PT Badak in 2006, started operating again in 2009 with a total production was 435 518 years. However, LNG production continued to decline since 2001 (the highest in the history of the production of PT Badak), despite the increase in 2007 and 2008 In 2009, LNG production was recorded as 17,375,053 tons. 
According to some expert estimates, based on the data available natural gas availability in early 2008, is expected in 2010, PT Badak will operate only with the 6 train. In 2011, which operates 4 trains, which operated from 2012 to 2014 ranges 2 train, and from 2015 to 2017 only running at 1 train. Post-2017 there is no certainty. 
The Tangguh gas fields
Indonesian From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Tangguh gas fields (2 ° 26'14 "N 133 ° 8'10" E) is a natural gas field located in the District of Bintuni Bay, West Papua Province, Indonesia. This gas field contains more than 500 billion m³ (17 Tcf) of proven natural gas reserves, with potential reserves estimated to reach more than 800 billion m³ (28 Tcf). This field is formed in the Jurassic. 
The Tangguh gas fields developed by a consortium of several international companies, led by British Petroleum (37% share), CNOOC (17%), and Mitsubishi Corporation (16.3%). Partners are smaller Japanese companies, namely Nippon Energy, Kanematsu, Sumitomo and Nissho Iwai.
This field is found on dasawarwa the 1990s  and began production started in June 2009 
Natural gas extracted from fields will be disbursed to form a liquefied natural gas (LNG - liquified natural gas) to be transported to consumers in Asia, especially China, South Korea, and Japan. This project is expected to allow Indonesia to remain an important supplier of natural gas to the world market, as a substitute for the shrinking of the Arun gas field production in Lhokseumawe, Aceh, Sumatra.
British Petroleum (BP) said it has received the approval of the EIA Tangguh LNG Integrated Project Development and Environment has issued Permit (IL).
EIA including environmental commitments and socially Tough. British oil and gas company has got the Ministry of Environment and also includes the role of local and central government. This Agreement is a condition that Tangguh project activities at the site can begin.
"This is a very important achievement for the Tangguh LNG Project Development," said Christina Verchere, BP's Regional President Asia Pacific through a BP official statement on Saturday (02/08/2014).
"We look forward to receiving the approval of other important so that we can carry out a project that will bring substantial benefits to Indonesia."
Tangguh LNG in the Bay, West Papua province, a liquefied natural gas facility (LNG) third largest in Indonesia. The project also is the first LNG operations which combines upstream and downstream activities.
Existing operational activities consist of two LNG processing plant (Train 1 and 2) with a production capacity of 7.6 million tonnes per annum (mtpa).
Development plan with the addition of a third LNG (Train 3) on existing operations will increase total production capacity to 11.4 mtpa.
Projects $ 12 billion development will add value large enough for the Indonesian government and will help meet the energy needs of Indonesia. As part of the project development Tangguh, BP and its partners will supply 40 percent of the output of Train 3 (1.5 mtpa) to PT PLN for the domestic market.
Some other important agreement, which is still in process, is needed in order to be able to continue this development project planning, design and procurement of goods and services.
"We continue to coordinate closely with SKK Oil and Gas, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources and other government agencies to obtain essential agreement with immediately," said Christina
Negotiating the price of a new export liquefied natural gas (LNG) Tangguh LNG plant in Papua to Fujian, China may be delayed. Although initially the two sides agreed to review the price of LNG exports in May 2013, but there is no agreement when negotiations began.
"We are always in contact with them, but they have not agreed when to kick off her, want to discuss," said Deputy Special Control Unit Commercial Upstream Oil and Gas (Migas SKK) Widhyawan Prawiraatmadja when met at the Ministry of Energy and Resources Mineral, Friday, June 21, 2013.
Widhyawan said, there is a difference of perception about time to renegotiate LNG price. Indonesia using the benchmark period of four years after the first shipment of LNG from Tangguh cargo to Fujian were due in early May 2013, "China can not begin in the middle years of the contract year. In other words, they can only be declared next year," said Widhyawan.
According to him, the Indonesian government wants to renegotiate the price finalized by the end of 2013, the new price is expected to be retroactive for LNG cargo shipments since January 2013, "If they say, renegotiation in May 2014 So, if retroactive, calculated from LNG exports in January 2014," Widhyawan said.
He hoped, a renegotiation can be decided in the near future. After both parties sit together, the issue price will be discussed. As long as there is no new agreement, then the exported gas to Fujian was still at the old price is $ 3.35 million per million metric British thermal units (MMBTU).
"But the problem buyers and sellers have their own interpretation. If there are differences in interpretation, if necessary, yes to arbitration," he said.
Minister Jero Wacik previously expecting prices to Fujian LNG exports could rise above $ 10 per MMBTU. The calculation of the reference price of LNG in the domestic market ranging $ 10 per MMBTU and spot LNG prices in the international market in the range of $ 16 per MMBTU.
Previously, Head of Oil and Gas SKK Rudi Rubiandini said, there are two related points of the proposed formula changed in this renegotiation. First, repeal of the limit on the price of oil is set at a maximum of US $ 38 per barrel. The upper limit is what causes the price of gas to Fujian has been stuck at $ 3.35 per MMBTU despite crude oil prices reaching $ 100 per barrel.
Points to two, raise the multiplier factor is the price of LNG is currently 5.25 per cent to 11 per cent. According to Rudi, with these two factors the price can go up to around $ 7 per MMBTU to $ 11 per MMBTU.
After 1.5 years to renegotiate, China finally agreed to raise the purchase price of liquefied natural gas (LNG) from Tangguh, West Papua. Tangguh LNG price rose from $ 3.3 per million British thermal units (mmbtu) to $ 8 per mmbtu.
× Tangguh gas sales to China that contract signed in the era of President Megawati Sukarnoputri was pegged at 5.5 percent x Japan Crude Cocktail (JCC) or based on the price of oil in Japan. At that time, the price set at the maximum JCC US $ 26 per barrel.
According to the Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources (ESDM) Wacik, it makes the price of LNG is sold to the Chinese × be very low at $ 2.7 per million British thermal units (MMBTU).
Then the government to renegotiate and managed to push up the price of JCC rose to $ 28 per barrel, so the price of gas at $ 3.3 per mmbtu.
Do not stop there, the price renegotiation outcome is still quite low. Especially when compared to the price of Indonesian LNG exports are already above $ 18 per mmbtu.
For that the government back to renegotiate. Even President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono to meet with Chinese President Hu Jintao to discuss the fate of Tangguh gas prices.
Finally after renegotiating long enough, reached an agreement that the price of LNG has not pegged to the JCC at a certain rate so the price follows the oil price movements.
"Starting July 1, the benchmark price of LNG exports to the Fujian × 0.065 + 1.5 JCC. JCC If her $ 100 per barrel, then the price to $ 8 per MMBTU. JCC If his, US $ 110 then the price to US $ 8.65 per mmbtu, "said × Wacik at the Presidential Palace, Jakarta, Monday (06/30/2014).
With this deal the price will go up continue to be $ 10.3 per mmbtu in 2015, then to $ 12 per mmbtu in the next year and in 2017 became $ 13.3 per mmbtu.
"This contract will be valid until 2034. If this lasted until 2034, the average price is the price at the numbers later fall $ 12.8 per mmbtu.'s 4-fold increase from last year," he said
In addition to the best gold producer and the largest in the world, Indonesia also has natural gas reserves of the largest in the world who are in the Natuna Block. How much natural gas reserves stored in the Natuna Block?
New estimates, only from the Natuna D Alpha course, Indonesia already has natural gas reserves of 200 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. In addition Natuna, Indonesia still has a few blocks of other natural gas producers.
History of the National Gas Company (PGN)
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/id/4/46/Logo_PGN_new_lowres.jpgPT Perusahaan Gas Negara (Persero) Tbk abbreviated PGN (IDX: PGAS) is a state-owned enterprises engaged in the transmission and distribution of natural gas.
Originally gas exploitation in Indonesia was a Dutch private gas company named IJN Eindhoven & Co established in 1859 which introduced the use of city gas in Indonesia, which is made from coal.
The process of transfer of power back occurs at the end of World War II in August 1945, when Japan surrendered to the Allies. Opportunity was used by the youths and electricity laborers through Labour delegates / Employee Electricity and Gas which together with KNI Leadership Center initiative to meet President Soekarno to submit such companies to the Government of the Republic of Indonesia.
On October 27, 1945, President Sukarno formed Electricity and Gas Bureau under the Ministry of Public Works and Energy with power generation capacity of 157.5 MW.
In 1958 the company was nationalized and converted into gas PN.
On January 1, 1961, Bureau of Electricity and Gas changed to BPU-PLN (Agency for Public Leadership National Electricity Company) is engaged in the electricity, gas and coke that was dissolved on January 1, 1965 At the same time, two (2) companies state that the State Electricity Company (PLN) as the manager of the state-owned electricity and the National Gas Company (PGN) as the manager of the gas was inaugurated.
Then on May 13, 1965 turned into the National Gas Company. Date is then celebrated as the anniversary of PGN on each year.
The company that originally made the gas stream from coal and oil by Catalytic Reforming techniques uneconomic start replacing it with natural gas flowing in 1974 in the city of Cirebon. Consumers are households, commercial and industrial. Distribution of natural gas for the first time performed in Cirebon in 1974, followed by a row in the 1979 Jakarta, Bogor 1980, 1985 Medan, Surabaya in 1994, and Palembang in 1996.
Based on its performance continues to increase, then in 1984 they were transferred to the National Gas Company Public Housing and its status in 1994 increased again to PT Perusahaan Gas Negara (Persero) with the addition of business scope is broader than in the field of natural gas distribution also more in the upstream sector in the field of transmission, which serves as a transporter PGN.
PGN then entered a new phase marked by a public company carrying PGN stock on the date of December 15, 2003 at the Indonesia Stock Exchange and the official name to PT Perusahaan Gas Negara (Persero) Tbk.
1 Distribution of natural gas
PGN's gas distribution pipelines operate along more than 3,750 km, supplying gas to the power generation, industrial, commercial businesses including restaurants, hotels and hospitals, as well as households in areas most populous in Indonesia. PGN benefit from the sale of gas to consumers.
2 Natural Gas Transmission
Natural gas transmission pipeline PGN consists of high-pressure pipelines along approximately 2,160 miles of natural gas that is sent from the source of gas to the buyer receiving station. PGN receives Toll Fee for gas deliveries in accordance with the Gas Transportation Agreement (GTA) which is valid for 10-20 years. Strategic Business Unit
To oversee the operations of transmission and distribution, PGN divides its business area into four Strategic Business Units with their respective geographic focus:
SBU Distribution Region I, covers an area of South Sumatra, Lampung to West Java (including Jakarta).
SBU Distribution Region II, covering an area of East Java.
SBU Distribution Region III, covering North Sumatra, Riau (Pekanbaru), and Riau Islands (Batam).
SBU Transmission, includes transmission lines in South Sumatra and Java.
In addition, PGN subsidiary, PT Indonesia Gas Transport, manage businesses for natural gas transmission networks and Grissik Grissik-Duri-Singapore. Subsidiaries and Affiliated Companies:
PT Indonesian Gas Transportation: natural gas transmission
PT PGAS Telekomunikasi Nusantara (PGASCOM): Telecommunications
PT PGAS Solution: construction, engineering, operation & maintenance
PT Nusantara Regas: storage and regasification terminals floating
PT Saka Energi Indonesia: the activities in the field of upstream
Gagas PT Energy Indonesia: the activities in the field of downstream
Gas Energy PT Jambi: trade, construction and services
PT Banten Gas Synergy: services, transport, trade and mining (Affiliate)
PT PGN LNG Indonesia: LNG and floating regasification terminals and storage
PGN (Stock Code: PGAS)
Along with the incessant privatization of SOEs in Indonesia, the government did its IPO of PT Perusahaan Gas Negara (PT) on December 5, 2003.
PGAS obtain effective statement from Bapepam-LK to do PGAS Initial Public Offering (IPO) to the community as much as 1.296296 billion with a nominal value of Rp. 500, - per share at the offering price of Rp. 1.500, - per share. These shares were listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) on December 15, 2003.
In mid-January 2007, information delay commercialization of gas via pipeline transmission of management PGN SSWJ a major cause of the drop in the price of the state-owned shares of up to 23% in one day.
Negative sentiment in the stock market is related to the suspicion that the PGN and the government cover-up delay of the project that should have been operating in December 2006, but was delayed until January 2007 and was delayed again until March.
Consequently fined by Pertamina PGN US $ 15,000 per day since November 1, 2006 In 2011, the composition of the government's share reaches 57% and the remaining 43% publicly.
Negotiations With Chinese Partner
Despite the decline in oil prices in late 2008, the government has insisted on moving forward with the process of renegotiating with China for the price of liquefied natural gas (liquefied natural gas / LNG) from the gas exploration field "Tough" in Papua to be exported to that country.
"Having discontinued because of the outbreak of the global financial crisis in the third quarter of this year (December 2008-ed), the government re-scheduled to resume negotiations with the partner of China in January 2009," according to Vice President Jusuf Kalla.
Since the convention kerosene to gas, the government issued a 3-kg LPG cylinder is smaller.
"We will refresh (negotiation) in January 2009," he said at his visit to the Tangguh LNG project in the Bay, West Papua Province, as reported by Reuters.
Previously, when visiting China, Kalla said the LNG contract with China will be renegotiated because Indonesia is seen as a position on the losing side.
However, he did not disclose any details of what was being offered to China. "We will discuss the formula, not just about the price. Negotiations will continue to move forward, "he said.
Kurtubi, oil and gas analyst, said the re-negotiation process for the Tangguh LNG price formula should be taken to the next level even though the price of oil dropped to the level to around $ 30.
In a 25-year contract to export LNG to China, the price has been set at $ 2.40 per MMBTU, with adjustment of rising crude oil prices.
http://beritaekonomi.kiosgeek.com/wp-content/plugins/wp-o-matic/cache/aca44_69519_gas_elpiji.jpgKontroversial contract liquefied natural gas (LNG) is then signed by the Indonesian government and companies in Fujian Province, China in 2002 under the Indonesian president, Megawati Sukarnoputri.
LNG price at the time of signing of the contract was based on the current price of crude oil, $ 20 per barrel.
The Chinese government has already agreed to raise the price of $ 3.80 per mmbtu, but the Indonesian government rejected the offer, saying it was still too low.
Tangguh gas field is developed by a consortium of BP Plc, (37.16 percent), MI Berau (16.3 percent), CNOOC (13.9 percent), Nippon Oil (12.23 percent), KG Berau / KG Wiriagar (10 percent ), LNG JapanCorporation (7.35 percent) and Talisman (3.06 percent).
Gas Utilization in Indonesia
Utilization of natural gas in our country began in the 1960s at which time production of natural gas from natural gas fields in the Hall PT Stanvac Indonesia, South Sumatra sent through a gas pipeline to the fertilizer plant Pusri IA, PT. Fertilizer Sriwidjaja in Palembang.
The development of natural gas utilization in Indonesia increased considerably sejaktahun 1974, which Pertamina began supplying natural gas via pipeline from natural gas fields in Prabumulih, South Sumatra to the fertilizer plant Pusri II, III and Pusri Pusri IV in Palembang.
LPG gas cylinder 12 kg.
Because it was too old and inefficient, in 1993 Pusri IA closed, and replaced by IB Pusri built by the sons of the Indonesian nation itself.
At that time Pusri IB is the most modern fertilizer plant in Asia, because it uses high technology.
In West Java, at the same time, in 1974, Pertamina also supplying natural gas via pipeline from natural gas fields off the coast (off shore) and the Java Sea region for Cirebon fertilizer plants and medium and heavy industries in the region of West Java and Banten, Cilegon .
Natural gas pipeline that extends from the region of Cirebon towards Cilegon, Banten, among other natural gas supply to the cement plants, fertilizer plants, ceramic plants, steel plants and gas power plants and steam.
One of the largest natural gas producing region in Indonesia is Aceh. Natural gas resources contained in the area Lhokseumawe managed by PT Arun NGL Company.
Natural gas has been produced since 1979 and exported to Japan and South Korea. Also in Krueng Geukuh, Nanggroe Aceh Baroh (of the district) also contained PT Iskandar Muda fertilizer urea fertilizer plant, the raw material of natural gas.
10 Largest gas producer in Indonesia
Where most companies contribute? The following is quoted from the written material SKK Gas Thursday (07/02/2013), the largest gas companies in Indonesia are:
1 PT Total E & P Indonesia (France), is the largest contributor RI gas production. The company produces 1693.98 mmscfd of gas from the Mahakam block in East Kalimantan. That figure is about 20.8% of the total national gas production.
2 BP Berau (UK), which is ranked second level of production reached 1,219 mmscfd, or about 15% of the total national production.
3 PT Pertamina Persero (Indonesia), the new Indonesian state-owned company was ranked third, contributing approximately 12.9% of the total national production or equivalent 1049.25 mmscfd.
4. Grissik ConocoPhillips (United States), this fourth 1027.02 mmscfd of gas produces Corridor Block, South Sumatra. It equaled 12.6% of total gas production in the country.
5. ConocoPhillips Indonesia Ltd. (United States), was ranked as the fifth largest gas production in Indonesia. The company is still owned by the United States as much as 432.94 mmscfd of gas produced from South East Natuna Sea Block B.
6. Vico Indonesia (English), produces 380.94 mmscfd,
7 ExxonMobil Oil Indonesia (United States), produces 369.22 mmscfd.
8. Kangean Energy, produces 294.99 mmscfd of Light Sirasun Batur field.
9. Jabung PetroChina (China), produced a total of 264.99 mmscfd in 9th position.
10 PT PHE ONWJ (Indonesia), occupies the last position is a subsidiary of Pertamina became the 10th contributor to the production level of 212.46 mmscfd.
Currently around 52% of domestic energy sources is still filled with fuel, 28% natural gas, 15% coal, 3% and 2% hydro geothermal. With the decreasing reserves of oil, natural gas is automatically substitute fuel energy most appropriate at this time.
Berujuk on the road map drawn up the ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, forward gas and coal consumption will be increased to replace the fuel, so as to meet national energy needs to 53%. While fuel to only 20%.
Total Reserves of Natural Gas in the World
Special Unit Upstream Oil and Gas (Oil and Gas SKK) noted that the realization of national gas production until January 27, 2013 stood at 8152.53 million cubic feet per day (mmscfd).
Broadly speaking, the use of natural gas is divided into 3 groups:
1 Natural gas as a fuel.
2 Gas LNG as an export commodity, and
3 gas as raw materials (fertilizers, petrochemicals, methanol, plastics, cast iron industry and so on.
Cutting-edge technology has also been able to utilize natural gas for air conditioner (AC = air conditioning), as used in the Bangkok airport, Thailand and several college buildings in Australia.
The world's total gas reserves (already confirmed) is 6,112 trillion square feet. List of top 20 countries with the largest gas reserves in units of square feet trillion (trillion cu ft) are:
1 Russian = 1,680
2. Iran = 971
3. Qatar = 911
4. Saudi Arabia = 241
5. United Arab Emirates = 214
6 United States = 193
7 Nigeria = 185
8. Algeria = 161
9. Venezuela = 151
10 Iraq = 112
11. Indonesian = 98
12. Norway = 84
13. Malaysia = 75
14. Turkmenistan = 71
15. Uzbekistan = 66
16. Kazakhstan = 65
17. Netherlands = 62
18. Egypt = 59
19. Canada = 57
Kuwait 20 = 56
Korversi Kerosene into Gas
Former Vice President Jusuf Kalla (JK) to review its success when enacting kerosene to gas on the sidelines of the inauguration of the operation of the LPG terminal owned Bosowa Group in Makassar, South Sulawesi, on Saturday (21.12.12) ago.
JK explained, the application of kerosene to gas conversion done to reduce energy subsidies in 2005 were assessed nearly bankrupt the country.
Vice President Jusuf Kalla-co-Directors-Pertamina-review-readiness-tube-ga
Former Vice President Jusuf Kalla (JK) impose kerosene to gas.
According to JK, several steps were taken such as increasing fuel prices (including kerosene) up to two times.
The increase was made two days before the fasting with consideration for the month, generally, people only cook two times so that the price increase is not too burdensome.
After that the government through the survey found that spending kerosene made public every week generally be in the range of Rp 15,000.
So there is an attempt to make the gas tube which can be appreciated in the range of USD 15,000, so that the conversion can be accepted by society. "Eventually the tube was three pounds, because it is important when it affordable," said JK.
When, according to him, the government through PT Pertamina must pay Rp 15 trillion in the conversion of kerosene to gas. In addition, to ensure its enforcement healthy, it was decided not to tender. With the program, the state could save 10 million kilo liters of fuel, as well as budget subsidies. (rr / bsc)
The fuel subsidy so messed National Economic Scapegoat
Atma Jaya University economics observer Augustine Prasetyantoko assess Fuel subsidy as a 'Top Looser' is the cause of the chaotic Indonesia's balance of payments.
"If it is said that his top looser who, yes it is fuel," said Augustine at Hotel Atlet Century, Jakarta, Wednesday (18/12/2013) ago. He mentioned, there are only two ways out to resolve issues related to the current account deficit the amount of fuel imports, namely:
Raise subsidized fuel prices, and
Limiting the consumption of subsidized fuel (RFID program).
"If you can not increase because of the elections. Yes limit their consumption. I think that is rather difficult to mitigate fuel consumption because there are some policies that are counterproductive, cheap cars for example.
http://paperrabbit.files.wordpress.com/2010/09/elpiji-12-3-kg.jpg?w=280&h=280Itu obviously will increase fuel consumption. So if you want to say yes it should rise in fuel prices to limit consumption and reduce the burden on imports, as well as fiscal, "said Augustine.
According to him, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources has a vital role in addressing the issues of import and consumption of fuel.
"So really if you want to actually work in the matrix of EMR it is no less serious to overcome the problem of balance of payments deficits because it's the biggest deficit as imports of fuel," added Augustine.
The reason Pertamina LPG 12 Kg raises prices
PT Pertamina, as a distributor of liquefied petroleum gas, decided to raise the price of the tube 12 Kg shortly after the new year. Pertamina raised the price of non-subsidized LPG 12 Kg packing following the high cost of LPG in the market and the falling value of the rupiah, which causes greater loss company.
Pertamina impose a new price of non-subsidized LPG 12 Kg packs simultaneously throughout Indonesia, with an average increase in the consumer level of Rp 3,959 per kg. The current selling price of LPG 12 Kg average of Rp 120,000 per tube and varies in each region.
"The magnitude of the increase in the consumer level will vary based on the distance to the point SPBBE transfer (supply point)," said Vice President of Corporate Communications of Pertamina, Ali Mundakir. With even this increase, he added, Pertamina still 'sell loss' to the non-subsidized LPG consumer packaging 12 Kg of Rp 2,100 per kg.
Non-subsidized LPG gas cylinders 12 Kg packing.
Coordinating Minister for the Economy Hatta Rajasa said the impact of raising the price of LPG 12 Kg to low inflation. According to him, the government can not prohibit PT Pertamina to raise the price of LPG 12 kg. Given that the goods are not subsidized by the government.
"If I had a wish of course we hold. Do not always be raised, "said Hatta in Indonesia Stock Exchange Building, Jakarta, Thursday (01.02.14). Square off raising the price of LPG is in fact usually by Pertamina. But always failed due to the refusal of the government's insistence gets.
The government argued this would increase the burden of life of the people and destabilize the economy. However, as a company, Pertamina claimed must apply good governance because it is responsible to shareholders.
So what is actually the reason Pertamina should raise the price of LPG 12 kg? There are four fundamental reasons for the rise are:
1 Recommendation Audit Agency (BPK)
This decision follows the recommendation of the Supreme Audit Agency (BPK) in the examination report in February 2013, where Pertamina bear losses on non-subsidized LPG business during the years 2011 to October 2012 amounting to Rp 7.73 trillion, which it can considered to cause losses to the state.
2 Always bear losses
With the consumption of non-subsidized LPG packing 12 Kg in 2013 to reach 977,000 tons, on the other hand the cost of acquisition of LPG increased to an average of USD 873, and the rupiah weakened against the dollar, then the loss Pertamina this year is estimated to reach more than Rp 5.7 trillion. Such loss arises as a result of the sale price of non-subsidized LPG 12 kg which is far below the cost of acquisition.
Current price is a price set in October 2009 which was Rp 5,850 per kg, while the cost of the acquisition has now reached USD 10 785 per Kg. With this condition, Pertamina has been 'selling loss' and bear the difference.
3 Losses have reached Rp 22 trillion
Pertamina LPG sales recorded accumulated losses of 12 kg has reached Rp 22 trillion in the last 6 years. Pertamina claimed always trouble developing the company's business if these events continue in the future.
"This of course is not healthy because it does not support corporate Pertamina in ensuring sustainable supply of LPG to the community," said Vice President of Corporate Communications of Pertamina Ali Mundakir.
4 Consumers LPG 12 Kg haves
With the non-subsidized LPG consumption patterns in society 12kg packaging which can generally be used for 1 to 1.5 months, the price increase will provide additional impact spending up to Rp. Rp.1.566 47,000 per month or per day.?
This condition is not believ
ed to have much effect on the purchasing power of consumers considering the non-subsidized LPG 12kg packaging is among the able. For the weak economy and consumer society micro, the Government has provided 3 kg of subsidized LPG is cheaper.
List of 10 Most Popular Tourist Attractions in Japan
T0ur World. Japan is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the world. Tourist Places in Japan is a unique blend of the traditional and the modern era, it is among the many temples and buildings of the past and the modern achievements in architecture and technology. Visitors can be brought in Japanese history and culture in one day visit and get a glimpse of the future through the development of technology in Japan. Almost all of the historical sites in Japan is still a form of their original, and remains open to the public. Japan's natural beauty can be seen all year round. In addition, Japan has one of the lowest crime rates in the world which makes it ideal for travelers. A little explanation is supposed to be able to make you more sure to visit tourist spots in Japan.
1 Mount Fuji
Beautiful views of Mount Fuji
If there is Mount Bromo in Indonesia, then in Japan are Mount Fuji is the highest mountain in Japan at an altitude of 3,776 meters (12,388 feet). The shape is very symmetrical and conical, this volcano is a well-known symbol of Japan and is often depicted in art and photographs, as well as a popular tourist attraction for travelers and climbers. An estimated 200,000 people climb Mount Fuji every year, 30% of whom are foreigners. This ascent can take anywhere between three and eight hours while for the decline can be reached from two to five hours.
2 Golden Pavilion
Temple of the Golden Pavilion
Kinkaku-ji, or Temple of the Golden Pavilion is the most popular tourist attraction in Japan and in the Kyoto area. The pavilion was originally built as a villa for Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu in the late 14th century. Unfortunately, the pavilion was burned in 1950 by a young monk who has been very obsessed with the pavilion. Five years later, the Pavilion was rebuilt as a copy of the original. Emphasis is placed on the building and surrounding gardens are in harmony with each other. The pavilion is covered by gold leaf picture reflecting the beauty of the pavilion in the pool and reflection pond at the building.
3 Tower Tokyo
Tokyo Tower Eiffel design which adopts
Tokyo Tower is a testament to the progress of technology and modern life in Japan. Inspired by the design of the Eiffel Tower in Paris, France, it is the second tallest man-made structure in Japan and serves as a means of communication and observation tower. Visitors can climb the tower to see unparalleled views of Tokyo and surrounding areas as well as shops and restaurants, it is not wrong if the Tokyo Tower is one place that is most popular in Japan Travel.
4. Himeji Castle
Himeji Castle the Magnificent
Himeji Castle is considered the best for castle architecture in Japan. This castle was once made to fight against the enemy during the feudal period, but has direnofasi back many times over the centuries and reflect periods of different designs. The castle survived the bombings of World War II and the castle is often seen in movies at home and abroad, including the James Bond film "You Only Live Twice". White exterior and castle design that resembles a bird that will fly, make a decent Himeji Castle pinned into the top 10 tourist attractions in Japan are popular.
5. Great Buddha Of Kamakura
-Bronze Buddha Statue
Big Buddha statue
Great Buddha of Kamakura is a colossal representation of Amida Buddha, one of the most famous Buddhist figures in Japan. Bronze statue of big Buddha in high standing more than 13 meters (40 feet) and weighs nearly 93 tons. This statue dates from the year 1252. Although originally housed in a small wooden shrine, a large Buddha statue has now been standing in the open because the original temple had been wiped out in the 15th century. Tourist Places in Japan is often crowded visited by local and foreign tourists.
Kiyomizu-dera Buddhist temple located in the eastern Kyoto and dating from 798. An indoor waterfall teraliri from outside the river makes this temple is very harmonious with nature and not a single nail used in the construction of this temple. The locals use this temple as a place of application, in a way that is quite extreme, ie jump from the edge so that their wishes can come true (with a survival rate of 85.4%), to modern visitors can enjoy shrines and amulets and works of art exhibited without risking life and tubuh.seperti members that do local residents, and this is what makes this Japanese tourist place in padati frequent travelers from outside.
7 Hiroshima Peace Memorial
Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Museum
Hiroshima Peace Memorial is a memorial building to commemorate the moment the atomic bomb was dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 The building is located in a memorial park Genbaku Dome, the only building left standing around after the bomb was dropped in 1945 this building was also once could remind the world as a strong warning against the war and the importance of peace in the world, which is why the building is often used as a visit Tourist Places in Japan that often visited by local and foreign tourists.
8. Todaiji Temple
Largest Wooden Building in the World
Todaiji Temple in Nara is a very fantastic buildings in terms of construction techniques. This is because not only because this building is the largest wooden building in the world, but also the Todaiji Temple houses the world's largest bronze Buddha statue. Surrounded by beautiful gardens and wildlife, Kegon school of Buddhism also based here and the reason that play an important role for many Japanese history and Buddhist artifacts. Tourist Places in Japan at this, you can see the deer that roam the park, because these animals are allowed to freely roam the grounds as a messenger of the Shinto gods.
9. Tokyo Imperial Palace
Imperial Palace Japan
Japanese Emperor makes his home in Tokyo Imperial Palace. It also serves as the administrative center and museum to display the belongings of Japanese art and history of Japan. The palace was built on the ruins of an old castle that was destroyed by fire or war, and architects while respecting the remains of the palace of the past by incorporating design elements from different eras into a modern palace. The new palace is surrounded by traditional Japanese gardens and has a lot of activity and function space for receiving guests and welcome publik.dan can also make one of the Tourist Attractions in Japan.
10 Jigokudani Monkey Park
Monkey Park (Hell Valley)
Jigokudani Monkey Park is an area that is well-known hot springs in the area near Nagano,. The name Jigokudani (which means "Valley of Hell"), is due to the steam and boiling water and remove bubbles frozen ground, surrounded by steep cliffs and cold forest. Tourist Places in Japan is famous for its large population of wild snow monkeys that go to the valley during the winter when snow covers the park. The monkeys will come down from the steep cliffs and forest to sit in the hot water warm, and going back to into the jungle at night. (Continue)